This document shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the law of England and Wales and is subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English Courts. The information, products and services referred to in this publication are not directed at any person or entity in any jurisdiction or country outside the United Kingdom.


The value of investments, and the income from them, can go down as well as up, and you may not recover the amount of your original investment. Past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance.

Where an investment involves exposure to a foreign currency, changes in rates of exchange may cause the value of the investment, and the income from it, to go up or down.

In the case of some investments, you should be aware that there is no recognised market for them, and that it may therefore be difficult for you to deal in them or for you to obtain reliable information about their value or the extent of the risks to which they are exposed.

Certain investments carry a higher degree of risk than others and are, therefore, unsuitable for some investors. It may be possible to lose all your initial capital in certain types of investments. Before contemplating any transaction, you should consider whether you require financial advice, which we would be pleased to provide upon request.


The information in this document is not intended as an offer or solicitation to buy or sell securities or any other investment or banking product, nor does it constitute a personal recommendation.